Revised July 8,
here to go to our main page on microwave switches
to go to our main page on FETs
here to go to our main page on power handling
Switch FET power handling
When FETs are used as series
switch elements, you need to evaluate their power handling in the
ON state. When they are configured as shunt elements, you need to
calculate their power handling in the OFF-state.
When we say "power handling"
for switches, what we mean is the power level that will correspond
to the onset of gain compression. Once you exceed the calculated
power handling, the insertion loss of your switch starts to go up.
Typically you should try to operate a switch without compressing
it, because you don't want to throw away performance on something
as mundane as a switch, right?
The ultimate power at which a
switch is damaged is the subject for another day...
Power handling for FETs in the
ON state is calculated using the maximum current the device can
The maximum current
is proportional to the periphery of the device. Thus a 1 mm periphery
device will have four times the power handling of a 0.5 mm device.
Using foundry parameters
found on Northrop Grumman's foundry web site, a typical MESFET might
have 225 mA/mm saturated current, and PHEMT might have 600 ma/mm
IMAX. This means that a 1 mm Northrop Grumman PHEMT will handle
9 Watts at IDSS, while a 1 mm NG MESFET is good for 1.27 Watts.
The plot below shows
the wide power handling variation that is possible for different
FET peripheries with different normalized saturated current.
New for April 2008! This
section has been expanded, please read on
The maximum power handling
for FETs in the OFF state is mainly a function of breakdown voltage.
The greater the deference between
pinch-off and breakdown, the higher the power handling. The optimum
voltage for power handling is merely the arithmetic average of VBR
NG's foundry info, a GaAs MESFET could expect to have 2.2 volts
pinch off and 19 volt breakdown, which translates to 2.8 watts power
handling if you were to operate the switch with a control signal
of exactly -8.4 volts, and all the planets were lined up (more on
this in a minute). Northrop's typical GaAs PHEMT has 1.2 volt pinch-off
and 10 volt breakdown will have maximum power handling of 0.77 watts,
when operated at -8.4 volts.
Note that maximum
OFF-state power handling is the same for all FETs that are of the
same process parameters, regardless of FET periphery.
The above analysis
assumes that you have biased your shunt FET power handling versus
control voltage. Now let's look at how the power handling is affected
by your choice of bias voltage. Let's define a parameter we'll call
"overhead voltage". It is the minimum distance between
the control voltage and either the pinch-off or the breakdown voltage
(whichever is closer). If you operate at the optimum voltage, the
overhead voltage we are defining is Vopt/2.
Note that the above
equation assumes that VC is somewhere between VPO and VBR, but we
didn't feel like adding the required "IF" statement to
it here. The power handling can now be expressed as a function of
the control voltage:
Let's look at a
graph that shows how the control voltage affects the power handling.
Below is a plot of power handling for a FET which has 12 volt breakdown
and 2 volt pinch-off. At the optimum voltage of 7 volts it can handle
1 watt. But as you move away from the optimum, the power handling
suffers a steep decline in both directions. A shift in either VBR,
VPO or VC can reduce power handling quickly; if you use a high-value
choke resistor for isolating the gate terminal, you'd better consider
current leakage into the FET gate which will drift the operating
point! Hence the planets have to align properly for maximum power
handling to occur. Our advice is to always derate a switch by at
least 20% (one dB) from it's maximum power handling.
If anyone wants
the spreadsheet that does this analysis, just ask!
One advantage that
PIN diodes have over GaAs FETs is in RF power handling. Vertical
PIN diodes on GaAs can have breakdown voltages in excess of 30 volts,
while PHEMT technology struggles to achieve breakdown voltages of
10 volts. The problem of power handling is worse than the 3:1 ratio
of breakdown voltages, for power handling is proportional to voltage
GaN technology has
a huge advantage to GaAs PHEMT, because breakdown voltages of up
to 100 volts are possible. Whether or not they become as ubiquitous
as PIN diodes in switches will be determined by the small-signal
loss they can achieve, which is a function of the switch figure
of merit 1/(RONxCOFF).
FETs for higher power handling
Power handling in
the OFF state can be increased by "stacking" FETs in series.
If done properly the RF voltage will divide among the gates. Thus
a double-stack of FETs with 12 volt breakdown can achieve comparable
power handling to a PIN diode switch with 24 volts breakdown.
switches, the power handling ideally goes up as the square of the
number of FETs in the stack. A double-stack structure (two FETs
in series) has four times the power handling of a FET structure,
with one caveat: adequate isolation is needed between the adjacent
gates so that the voltage divides equally. Resistive gate feeds
are one way to accomplish this.
Another down side
to stacking FETs to improve power handling in the OFF state is that
the series resistance in the ON state is multiplied. You don't get
anything for free!
One thing to consider is whether
you need your switch to perform "cold" switching or "hot"
switching. Hot switching means that it has a high-power signal incident
on it during the switching cycle. Special considerations must be
given to the switch design in this case or failure may occur.
More to come!